With the changing curriculum, there is a sudden need for teaching models that cater to the needs of all the students and makes the foundation of knowledge stronger among the kids. The teaching model we’re gonna talk about focuses on the inclusion of special kids.
Are you still taught by your grandparents? Most of the students will say no. What could be the reason behind it, then? To be precise, it is due to the reformation of the teaching curriculum. From explicit instruction to that of real-life experimentation.
With the rise of the 21st century, the education system took a 360-degree turn. Now, much emphasis is done on teaching through experimentation and by giving real-life examples. This is done in order to make children relate every theoretical knowledge with the practicality of life.
Inquiry-based approaches like the 5e Model Lesson Plan could benefit slow learners for in-depth study of scientific topics. This approach makes it easier for students to recall what was taught in the class.
What is Inquiry-Based Learning?
Inquiry-based learning is a student-centric teaching method in which the student is the active force. While the teacher takes a step back and lets the child explore things by himself and by asking questions. In this kind of learning, a child tries to relate his learning with real-life experiences. This process is also called learning while doing.
The child tries to make sense of the world and things surrounding him. And when he finds himself caught up in between things, he tries to settle his curiosity by asking and inquiring about his observations from his teacher.
This approach to teaching is generally hands on-learning. Studies have found a sharp increase in the cognitive development of students with special needs. Moreover, it was also noticed that its implementation brought a momentous increase in critical thinking, critical analysis, practical knowledge, and problem-solving skills in the students.
How Does Inquiry-Based Learning Work?
Are you a big fan of Alice Walker’s novels? If yes, then you must have read her best-selling novel “The Color Purple.” It was also adapted into a movie with the same title in 1985. In this movie, a contrast between teaching methods is shown through the characters of Celie and Nettie. Celie’s character favors the theoretical reading of the text which she reads after getting some education from Shugs. On the other hand, Nettie’s character defies this approach.
Nettie questions this approach and could be seen indulging in inquiry-based learning. She is shown as someone who learns by doing things. In the movie, Nettie was shunned by her family and friends for asking too many questions and for inquiring. Due to this approach she was able to find the children of Celie. This is a good example of inquiry-based learning.
Introduction to the 5E Model
In 1987, this model was developed by R.Bybee and N.M. Landes in Science for Life and Living: An Elementary School Science program from Biological Sciences Improvement Study(BSCS).
The 5E model was introduced in the (BSCS) curriculum to elevate the scientific approach among students. The main motive for introducing this curriculum was to promote collaborative learning, problem-solving skills, and an approach to research through inquiry.
In the book, Achieving scientific literacy: From Purposes to Practices (1997) R.Bybee declares that “using this approach, students redefine, reorganize, elaborate, and change their initial concepts through self-reflection and interaction with their peers and their environment. Learners interpret objects and phenomena and internalize those interpretations in terms of their current conceptual understanding”.
How Does the 5E Instructional Model Work?
The 5E instructional model lays its foundation on the thought that experience is the building block of knowledge. It is also called the Constructivist model of teaching.
Readers might be thinking by now what is 5E? The five E refers to the five phases of this instructional model that are: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate.
Now let’s dig into the detailed study of the 5E model.
The main purpose of the 5E lesson plan in this phase is to draw the attention of the students. Here the teacher should employ the quickest activities with a span of 5 to 12 minutes. The activity should be a connecting dot between the new learning and what was taught earlier.
In this learning cycle, the teacher introduces the topic. The teacher tries to bridge the gap between the past topic and the new topic which is introduced in the classroom.
The activities may include:
- Writing pointers for the topic which is being introduced in the class.
- Quiz game
- Novel questions
- A short video introducing the topic.
- KWL charts (Know, Want to Know, Learned)
- Asking questions
- Short relatable story regarding the topic.
Once the students are acquainted with the topic, now the next step in this lesson plan is to let the students explore the new topic. At this phase, students discover more concrete knowledge through exploration, observations, and experimentation. This approach is more student-oriented and the teacher serves as a facilitator.
Students are bombarded with hands-on learning and investigation of the problems. They are given full freedom to learn new things by experimentation. The teacher motivates students to engage with each other and exchange observations.
The activities may include:
- Observation sheets
- Shared readings
- Extended interviews
- Site visits
- Artistic work
- Shared readings
This phase of the 5E model is more teacher-centric. Before giving direct instructions and explanations the teacher tries to know the extent the topic is clear in the minds of the student. To test this teacher can group students and can instruct them to present their observations.
And the teacher can ask a deep question to understand the depth to which students have understood the topic. If the need arises, the teacher can guide the students where they are lacking. This 5E lesson cycle is also called ‘minds mode on’.
The activities may include:
- Formal notes
- Index cards
- Group presentations
- Computer software
- Integrated Youtube videos
The elaborate phase of the 5E lesson plan is the crucial phase of learning. This phase provides an opportunity for students to test their knowledge by applying what they have learned.
The learning could begin from a teacher-centric lecture but eventually turns into hands-on learning. Students try to satisfy their curiosity by applying their newly gained knowledge to the concepts of the past.
In this 5E learning cycle, students try to understand the topic in detail. They try to apply the same knowledge in other disciplines in order to widen their knowledge.
The activities may include:
- PowerPoint Presentations
- Integrate technology
In the evaluation phase of the 5E lesson plan, the teacher can decide on the setup of the evaluation. It could be formal, as adopted by most schools. And could also be informed if the school is more practical-oriented and wants to give a real-life experience. But the combination of both ways of evaluation works best for the students.
This learning cycle is generally teacher-centric because the decision-making power lies in the hands of the teacher.
The activities may include:
- Pen and paper test
- Working models
- Mapping Concepts
- Writing assignments
- OMR sheets test
The teachers who incorporate this instructional model in the classroom can contribute more to the development of students. The lessons taught through the 5E lesson plan remain in the memory of the child for a longer duration.
Note: To be successful, the 5E instructional model should be followed for at least two or more weeks.
Example of the 5E Model Lesson Plan
The 5E model could be applied in different disciplines. Let’s try to apply it in English.
In the English classroom, this model could be applied in teaching the unit of synonyms. For better understanding, the teacher could incorporate visual and kinesthetic learning.
5E lesson plan example as under:-
Engage: Students are handed synonyms word cards that they can use instead of the word “Run”.
Explore: Students will try to differentiate between the words they already know and the new words they discovered. They will try to analyze how the sense of sentence changes with every synonym. Students will try to explore this phenomenon by replacing or placing words in the passage they are reading.
Explain: In this phase of the 5E model, the instructing teacher tries to fill the gaps in the knowledge of students. The teacher tries her best to eradicate all the misconceptions and difficulties of the students. And the students try to define and apply the synonyms in the best visual and kinesthetically correct way.
Elaborate: Now, the students in the group try to apply the learned synonyms in the new passage given by the teacher. Usually, it is done in groups where everyone tries to learn from each other. And once it is done it is represented to the teacher by the leader of the group.
The teacher will see the placement of synonyms in the passage and will put up questions if the placement seems incorrect. Once all this is done the teacher will bridge the gaps of knowledge in the student’s work.
Evaluate: To check the progress of students, teachers can ask students to represent what they have learned by making them write a story using synonyms of the words. This could happen only in the case of real-life teaching.
Whereas, in the case of formal evaluation a written test would be conducted individually. The marks awarded after the examination would decide whether the student can understand synonyms.
Application of the 5E Model of Instruction
The 5E model of instruction has been adopted in the science curriculum of many universities in the Ohio region of America. This approach to teaching is specially incorporated into the discipline of science. It is believed that the 5E model lesson plan will extract technical jargon from scientific lessons.
Things to Keep in Mind Before Applying the 5E Model
1. Take Baby Steps
Let’s be practical, no teacher can apply a 5E lesson plan in one go. It’s a long process that requires effort from both students and the teacher. So in order to apply this model successfully, teachers should focus on implementing any two or three phases of the model.
What could be the basis for the selection of phases, then? The selection would depend on factors like the need of students, the topic of discussion, and class size.
2. Deconstructing Myth
There is a wind surrounding the application of this model. So, let’s demote the myth that the 5E learning cycle does not apply to other disciplines. This model was developed for science but researchers have found it useful for other disciplines as well. You can apply this model in different disciplines depending on your choice of teaching method.
Effectiveness of the 5E Model of Instruction
In accordance with Lesley University, “The 5E Model is most effective when students are encountering new concepts for the very first time because there is an opportunity for a complete learning cycle.”
Researchers have found that the 5E model of instruction has shown great results in science students. It was noticed that their average score increased. Absenteeism in the class was reduced, and more participation in activities was seen.
In order to be effective, this model should be implemented in a planned way. Teachers can allocate beforehand the time duration for each phase of learning. There shouldn’t be many deviations from the plan of action.
If the teacher does not complete the five phases on time, it may result in a loss of significant information. The attention span of children is shorter so they couldn’t be engaged with activities longer. So, it is wise to follow a planned schedule.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the 5E Model
With its complexities, a 5E model could be beneficial and a stumbling block for some. In order to reap the benefits of this model both the teacher and students have to make combined efforts.
The advantages are as follows:-
- The 5E lesson plan permits both formal and informal evaluation setups. In this way, there is room for real-life teaching and assessment.
- It widens and fills the knowledge gap of students.
- The students develop a scientific approach to learning.
- Teachers are able to connect with students on a deeper level.
- The model helps children to develop a sense of individuality.
- This model helps in broadening the student’s area of interest.
- In this teaching method, teachers usually incorporate different teaching aids like hands-on learning and a choice board for the students.
The disadvantages are as follows:-
- The 5E lesson plan reduces the efficiency of the process of learning if used for a short period of time.
- It is a time-consuming process.
- This model of teaching requires planning ahead which many teachers fail to do.
- The 5E approach is more student-centric and provides no room for teachers’ skill development.
Evey teaching model comes with its advantages and disadvantages. But what is significant is that this model overshadows all its peculiarities. Thus, provide a clear guide to the study of science and other disciplines.
The 5E model of instruction is one of the best teaching models available for scientific study. This model is not only restricted to science but its seeds could be nurtured in other disciples as well.
All you need is the systematic application of the model. One thing which a teacher should be careful about is that she should let students explore things on their own. The teacher should not facilitate the students unless and until it is necessary. Let them solve their issues themselves first.